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The Plains of India
- To the south of the Himalayas and to the north of the Peninsula lies the great plains of North India. They are formed by the depositional works of three major river systems, Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra. The vast plains of north India are alluvial in nature and the westernmost portion is occupied by the Thar Desert.
- The thickness of the alluvium is maximum in the Ganga plains and minimum in the Western Plains.
- In the Kerala plains are the backwaters or ‘Kayak’, which are the shallow lagoons or inlets of the sea, lying parallel to the coastline. The largest among these is the Vembanad Lake.
- The plains consist of four divisions:
- Bhabar : Along the foothills of Shiwaliks. Highly porous
- Tarai : Re-emergence of streams. Zone of excessive dampness
- Bhangar : Older alluvium of the plains. Studded with calcareous formations called ‘kankar’
- Khadar : New alluvium and forms the flood plains along the river banks.