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- Founded by Jyotiba Phule in 1873 to fight Brahmanic domination and to liberate low castes by educating them and teaching them their rights. He advocated the cause of untouchables.
- Jyotiba also started a school for untouchables and an orphanage for widows.
- His books, Ghulamgiri and Sarvajanik Satyadharma Pustak questioned the traditional customs and beliefs of society.
- Met the Duke of York as the representative of poverty stricken Indian peasant.