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The Non-Cooperation Movement
- It was the 1st Mass based political movement under Gandhi.
- The Movement was launched as per resolution of Calcutta session & ratified in Nagpur session Dec 1920. Anti-Rowlatt Agitation. Jalianwala Bagh tragedy, Khilafat. Movement, General economic, distress during & after the war were the reasons of Non-Cooperation Movement
- The Tilak Swarajya Fund was started to finance the Non-Cooperation Movement.
- The main emphasis of the movement was on boycott of schools, colleges, law courts and advocacy of the use of Charkha. There was widespread student unrest and top lawyers like C R Das and Motilal Nehru gave up their legal practice. Thereafter, the stress was on boycott of foreign cloth and boycott of the forthcoming visit of the Prince of Wales in November, 1921; popularization of Charkha and Khadi and Jail Bharo by Congress volunteers.
- Swaraj or self-rule, Redressal of Punjab wrongs & Khilafat issue were demanded through Non-Cooperation Movement
- Non-Cooperation Movement progressed powerfully from January 1920 to Early February 1922.
- From November 192 I, a shift towards radicalism was visible. Gandhi decided to launch a no-revenue campaign at Bardoli, and also a mass civil disobedience movement for freedom of speech, press and association.
- The attack on a local police station by angry peasants at Chauri Chaura, in Gorakhpur district of UP, on February 5, 1922. changed the whole situation. Gandhi, shocked by this incident, withdrew the Non-Cooperation Movement.